Multimedia Woodturning
Glossary 2 - J through P

This page contains Woodturning Glossary 2 - entries for J - P. To access additional Glossary pages, use these quick links:

A - I

Q - Z

Woodturning Glossary
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Jacob's Chuck - A type of drill chuck that can be used in the headstock, or tailstock of a lathe. Jacob's chucks are typically used for holding drill bits during drilling operations, but may also act as a fixing when used to secure sizing mandrels for turning small projects.

Jig - Any device made to facilitate an operation such as drilling, sanding, grinding, sharpening, milling, finishing, or sawing.

JIS - Japanese Industrial Standard, published by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee in conjunction with the Japanese Standards Association.


Kauri-Butanol Value The specific measurement of a hydrocarbon solvent's strength, expressed as KB. All other things being equal, the higher the KB value, the stronger the solvent.

Kerf - The width of material that is removed by different types of saw blades (bandsaw, tablesaw, reciprocating saw, handsaw, coping saw etc.) as they complete the cut.

Kicker - A chemical "accelerator" that speeds the curing process of Cyanoacrylates, or Super Glue. Kickers utilize amines as the active ingredient and are available from most Cyanoacrylate suppliers. Kickers are typically applied by spraying, dipping, or wiping the accelerator onto an adjoining substrate, or over an exposed CA filet.

The specific base used varies by product and manufacturer, but may include Isopropanol, Heptane, Acetone, Electronic Grade Acetone, Perfluorocarbon, or Propylene based Glycol Ether. In addition to speeding the curing of cyanoacrylates, kickers also work to effectively clean and degrease the substrate prior to application of the liquid CA.

Various kickers for Cyanoacrylate "Super Glues"

Kickover - The point at which an adhesive experiences a sudden increase in viscosity as it begins to cure. Once the adhesive has kicked over, it is near its solid cured state.

Kiln Drying - A wood drying process that reduces and stabilizes the moisture content of green wood by placing it in temperature controlled ovens, where excess moisture is removed by specific heating protocols. Kiln drying greatly reduces the time required for green wood to reach equilibrium moisture content, or EMC. When green wood reaches EMC, it is said to be "seasoned."

Knopp Hardness Test - A hardness test that applies a known load for a specific amount of time to the surface of a metal, through a diamond with uneven longitudinal and traverse included angles. The Knopp hardness number is the applied load, divided by the unrecovered projected area.

Krebs Units - A measurement of viscosity obtained when using a Stormer viscosity instrument. Values are expressed as KU.

Woodturning Glossary 2 L through M


Lace Bobbin Drive - A metal drive with a tapered square recess that is used in the Morse taper of a spindle, to turn lace bobbin blanks for turning.

Lacquer Thinner - Lacquer Thinner is a clear, colourless blend of solvents formulated exclusively for use with most lacquer based wood and metal finishes. It is not compatible with acrylics, automotive or other specialty lacquers. Contains Isobutyl Isobutyrate, Methyl Ethyl Ketone, Butyl Acetate, Methanol, Toluene, Lactol Spirits, Cyclohexane, Heptane and Methyl Cyclohexane.

Lacquer thinner is a high-strength solvent that is used to thin lacquer based paints and clear finishes to improve leveling and reduce application viscosity, without compromising clarity or gloss.

Lamp Auger - A specialized long drill bit made to drill holes in lamps for the electrical cord pathway. Lamp augers are used in conjunction with a hollow tailstock guide that centers the bit for drilling through the lamp base.

Layout Templates - Clear plastic templates printed with concentric circles that are used to layout, or plan the cutting of bowl and platter blanks. The clear plastic allows easy positioning to find the best figure in the blank, or to eliminate any unwanted defects.

Layout template

Legging - Filaments or strings that are drawn when two adhesive bonded surfaces are separated.

Lightfast - The ability to maintain colour (or to withstand colour change) when it's exposed to light. When working with wood dyes, the lightfastness of the dye can be an important consideration, if the completed project will be exposed to natural sunlight.

Light Reflectance Value - A numerical value of the amount of light that is reflected off a dry film coating when using a gloss meter. Commonly expressed as LRV.

Load - The amount of force that a joint, board or body can sustain.

Loading – Term used to describe the accumulation of resins, saw dust or finish on the surface of an abrasive product. Loading greatly reduces the efficiency of the abrasive and adds unnecessary heat to the surface of the abrasive and the surface being sanded.

Load Time - The period of time on an air compressor from the time it loads until it unloads.

Locking Adhesives - Adhesives that are used to prevent threaded screws and similar fasteners from loosening through vibration in use. Anaerobic adhesives are a typical example of this type of adhesive. Commonly referred to as Thread Lockers.

Linseed Oil - Linseed oil, a primary ingredient in some oil finishes, is derived from the seeds of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum L. Linseed oil is obtained by various methods including pre-expelling, followed by hexane extraction of the resulting press cake. The oil is refined to remove phosphatides and gums, which naturally occur in the oil. Subsequent refining through post-desliming with sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid yields an oil with virtually no traces of phosphatides or gums. Further post-treatments include lye neutralization and earth bleaching, which yields a very light drying oil.

Lippage - A condition evidenced on writing pen barrels when the barrels are oversize at the component mating surfaces. This creates a small lip that can be felt with your finger. Lippage can be caused by incorrect sizing of the barrels to the bushings, variances in the size of the bushings and the pen components, or by applying too much finish on the barrels.

Live Center - The revolving ball-bearing tailstock center on a lathe. The word "Live," refers to the bearings in the center that allow it to rotate when the wood turns. "Dead" centers have fixed center points with no bearings and do not rotate when the wood turns.

Lustre - Synonymous with Gloss. The amount of gloss on a cured film finish. Common descriptions may include: Flat, Satin, Semi-Gloss, or High Gloss, or Low Lustre, Medium Lustre, High Lustre etc.


Macrocrystalline Wax - Macrocrystalline Wax (Paraffin Wax) is a petroleum wax made from deoiled slack wax, which is derived by dewaxing base distillate lube oil streams of predominantly straight chain alkanes. Paraffin wax is brittle and has a low melting point between 46 and 71 degrees Centigrade. Paraffin waxes impart high resistance to moisture. Due to their low cost, paraffins are frequently added to other wax blends.

Make Coat - The primary coating that anchors abrasive grains onto the backing material. The backing material used (paper, cloth, film etc.) acts as a foundation for the make coat.

Malleability - The ability of a metal to be rolled, pressed or hammered into various shapes without fracture or rupture.

Mandrel - (1) A shaft that is used on various types of tools like Velcro faced foam sanding mandrels, flutter wheels and sanding stars that allows the tool to be used in a drill, or drill press. (2) A specifically sized rod or shaft that is used to hold projects on the lathe for turning, such as a pen mandrel. (3) A small metal disk that is mounted in a Jacob's chuck for turning small diameter inlays for book markers and key chains.

Methanol - Methanol (Also known as Methyl Alcohol) is a clear, colourless highly toxic liquid that has a characteristic, pungent alcoholic odour. It is hydroscopic and miscible in all proportions with water and with most organic solvents.

It is less soluble in fats and oils and only partially miscible in aliphatic hydrocarbons. It is insoluble in oil-modified alkyd resins and polymers. Methanol is typically used as a solvent for shellac, cellulose nitrate, colophony and urea resins. It is also used to denature alcohol.


Methyl Ethyl Ketone - Methyl Ethyl Ketone (Also known as MEK, 2-butanone, Ethyl Methyl or Methyl Acetone) is a high-strength, clear, colourless specialty Ketone solvent has characteristics similar to Acetone, but with a slower evaporation rate. MEK can be substituted for Acetone to thin epoxy or fibreglass resins.

Methyl Ethyl Ketone is used to thin certain nitrocellulose lacquers, ethyl cellulose, acrylic and vinyl acetate-vinyl chloride copolymers. Natural and synthetic waxes are insoluble.


Methylated Spirits - Methylated Spirits (Also known as Denatured Alcohol or Ethyl Alcohol) is a clear or violet coloured liquid solvent. Formulations vary, but typically contain Ethyl Alcohol, Benzine, Butyl Alcohol, Naphtha, Methyl Violet, Denatonium Benzoate. Methylated spirits are used as a solvent to thin spirit based varnishes and French Polishes. Mineralised Methylated Spirits is an alcohol prepared for industrial use.

Micromesh Abrasives - Specialized wet and dry fabric backed, latex faced abrasives available in nine grits from 1500 - 12,000.

Frequently used by woodturners for wet sanding alternative materials like plastic to a glass finish, or to polish cured film finishes to a high gloss lustre.

Micromesh wet and
dry abrasives

Microcrystalline Wax - Microcrystalline Wax is a petroleum wax containing branched and cyclic saturated hydrocarbons, as well as normal alkanes from deoiled residual bright stock lube oil streams. Microcrystalline waxes have a crystalline structure much smaller than totally natural waxes and have a very high resistance to moisture, alcohol, acids and fingerprints.

Microcrystalline waxes are obtained from the residual fraction of crude oil distillation (Petrolatum) or from crude oil tank bottoms. Hard grade microcrystalline wax (from crude oil tank bottoms) has a penetration of less than 11 dmm at 25 degrees Centigrade and a melting point of approximately 60 to 93 degrees Centigrade. Plastic grades of microcrystalline wax (from Petrolatums) have penetrations greater than 11 dmm at 25 degrees Centigrade.

Micron – One millionth of a meter, or one twenty-fifth of a thousandth of an inch. This term is used to describe the average abrasive particle size of very fine microgrits and abrasive powders.

Micron Graded Abrasives – A more precise grading system than the traditional "grit" grading process that utilizes stringent controls for producing abrasives with a more consistent and superior scratch patterns. This grading system is typically used with diamond and micro finishing abrasives.

Mineral Spirits - Mineral Spirits (Also known as Stoddard Solvent, Paint Thinner, Varsol or Solvasol) are clear, colourless liquids used to thin oil base paints, stains, varnishes and polyurethane’s to improve leveling, reduce application viscosities and increase penetration. Contains Stoddard Solvent.

Mineral Spirits

Mineral Streak - A multi-coloured (green to brownish-black) discoloration in hardwood timber that results from a wound induced bacterial, fungal or chemical action.

Miscible - Capable of blending or mixing uniformly.

Modified Set - A type of setting for bandsaw teeth where the repeating pattern of the tooth set alternates i.e. - right, left, right, left, straight, right, left, right, left, straight...

Mohs Scale of Hardness - In the early 1800's, Friedrick Mohs introduced an arbitrary (non-linear) scale to measure mineral hardness. He selected ten minerals for the scale including Talc which is very soft (given a value of 1), to diamond the hardest material known (given a value of 10). Any mineral listed on the scale can scratch any other mineral listed on the scale with a lower number than itself. 

Talc - 1

Gypsum - 2

Calcite - 3

Fluorite - 4

Apatite Feldspar - 5

Orthoclase - 6

Quartz - 7

Topaz - 8

Corundum - 9

Diamond - 10

Moisture Content - The total weight of the water in a wood sample, expressed as a percentage of that samples weight when it is completely dry, i.e. zero moisture in the wood, or "oven" dry. In the trade, this measurement is often abbreviated as the "MC" of the wood.

Montan Wax - Crude Montan Wax is a naturally occurring vegetable wax extracted by solvents from lignite coal deposits and peat. Refined Montan Wax has undergone additional processing to remove any resins and asphalt. This hard vegetable wax has a melting point of 79 to 90 degrees Centigrade. The colour ranges from dark brown to light yellow. Montan wax imparts a high gloss and increases water repellence and scuff resistance.

Morse Taper - A specially shaped tapered hole in the headstock spindle, or the tailstock ram that allows the use of accessories like drive spurs, ball bearing centers and Jacob's chucks. Morse taper accessories are held in the taper by contact friction of the two mating surfaces.

To remove a Morse taper accessory, a knockout rod is inserted in the opposite end of the hollow headstock spindle and smacked a few times until the accessory is released. To remove the Morse taper in the tailstock, the tailstock ram is retracted until the ram self-ejects the taper accessory. Some lathes do not have this feature and require a knockout rod to eject the taper accessory.

Morse Taper Reducer - A Morse taper reduction adaptor that allows the use of smaller Morse tapers inside larger Morse tapers. For example, if your tail stock ram uses a #3 Morse taper fitting and you want to use a #2 Morse taper fitting inside your ram, you could use a Morse taper reducer to reduce the #3 taper down to a #2 taper size.

Mottling Embellishment - A specialised finishing technique that applies colour to an object by dabbing, or pouncing the colour onto the surface. Rags or foam sponges are typically used creating a blotched appearance on the object.

Multi-groove Belt - Most newer lathes utilize drive belts that feature numerous tiny "V's" in the contact face of the belt. This design allows for more contact area on the pulley and better power transmission of the power from the motor to the lathe spindle.

Woodturning Glossary 2
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Woodturning Glossary 2 N through O


Natural Edge - (1) Any turned form that incorporates some, or all of the natural outside shape of the tree. Bowls, platters and hollow forms are popular natural edge projects.

Natural edge pieces may incorporate the outside bark edge of the tree, or the bark may have been removed leaving the natural outside curve of the trunk or limb. (2) Any turned form that incorporates the natural outside of the blank. For example, Antler buttons.

Classic example of a natural
edge Mesquite bowl

Nonconjugated Oils - Nonconjugated oils such as linseed, soybean, sunflower and safflower oil, are fatty oils that contain polyunsaturated fatty acids, whose double bonds are separated by at least two single bonds (i.e. isolated double bonds make up the nonconjugated oils).

Non-Woven Abrasive - Non-woven abrasive pads are constructed of flexible non-metallic materials and do not compromise the surface with metallic fragments that may eventually rust, or discolour pale timbers. The primary abrasives used in non-woven abrasive pads from most aggressive to least abrasive are: Aluminum Oxide (brown, tan, maroon and blue coloured pads), Silicon Carbide (black or grey coloured pads), Alumino-Silicate (green coloured pads) and Talc (white coloured pads).

Non-woven abrasives


Odorless Mineral Spirits - Odourless Mineral Spirits is a specially refined, low odour version of traditional mineral spirits. Contains Stoddard Solvent.

Odourless Mineral Spirits are used to thin oil base paints, enamels, stains, varnishes and polyurethane’s to improve leveling, reduce application viscosities and increase penetration. Odourless Mineral Spirits is an excellent solvent for oil and wax.

Mineral Spirits

Ogee - A turned decorative element on woodturnings that looks like an elongated 'S' shaped curve.

One-Off - A term that relates to woodturnings that are a single unique piece of art, as opposed to making multiple copies of the same item.

Open Coat Abrasive - Open coat abrasives have abrasive grains covering approximately 40% - 70% of the backing surface. This system offers a faster cut and increased flexibility when compared to closed coat abrasive systems. In addition, the open coating offers more resistance to loading on the surface of the abrasive.

Open Time - The length of time before an adhesive sets up, or begins curing. Also known as the Working Time.

Orange Peel - Orange peel is a pebbled like film surface on lacquer or enamel finishes that resembles an orange skin. Orange peel can be caused by the lacquer drying too rapidly when sprayed, or by a failure or combination of failures to achieve the desired leveling effects.

Ouricury Wax - Ouricury Wax is obtained from the fronds of the Syagros coronata, the Brazilian Feather Palm. It is very similar to Carnauba wax in gloss and hardness, but darker in colour. However, the wax is significantly more difficult to extract than Carnauba and requires mechanical scraping of the fronds to release the wax. Ouricury wax has a melting point of 82.5 degrees Centigrade and is sometimes used as a replacement for Carnauba, when a darker coloured wax is desired.

Outboard Turning - Turning projects using the spindle on the left hand side of the headstock. Many lathes offer a threaded spindle on both the inbound and outbound side of the lathe. This allows turning on either side of the lathe. Outboard turning may require reverse threaded accessories and supplemental free standing tool rests, depending on the design of the lathe. Also known as Rear Face Turning.

Oven Dry Timber - Timber that has been dried to a constant weight in an oven at 100 - 105 degrees Centigrade.

Woodturning Glossary 2 P through Q


Paper Backing – Lightweight paper backings offer several advantages over other backing materials including lower cost and extreme flexibility. A (lightest), C and D weights are used in paper backed abrasive sheets, rolls and discs. Heavier weight papers used for belt, disk and rolls feature E and F (heaviest) weight papers. B weight papers are a good choice for many woodturning needs.

PAPR - Acronym for "Personal Air Purifying Respirator." PAPR's are typically powered respirators that run on rechargeable batteries with high quality dust filters. Some units also feature cartridges that are capable of filtering out certain harmful fumes. The fan motors may be belt mounted, or integrated into the headset. Some models also feature integrated helmet mounted hearing protectors.

Parting Tool - A woodturning tool designed to part off waste areas on spindles, or to size a part of the spindle to a specific diameter. Parting tools are also used to create small flat areas when turning decorative elements on a project. There are numerous types of parting tools including super thin (1/16" thick), diamond section and standard parting tools.

Part Seasoned - This is a marketing term used by some timber suppliers to describe wood that is not fully seasoned. In practical terms, the wood is fully seasoned or it's green. If you purchase wood that is partially seasoned, treat it like green wood until it has fully seasoned (see EMC).

Paste Wax - A combination of wax and a solvent made into a creamy consistency for easy application. Paste waxes may also include essential oils, drying oils, pigments, dyes or other ingredients.

Minwax paste wax

Peel Forces - Forces that entail line loads at the end of the joint, where only a small part of the bond surface is exposed to stress. This creates an uneven stress across the entire bond surface.

Peel Strength - The ability of an adhesive to resist being stripped from a bonded joint at a specific angle or rate.

Pen Mandrel - A smooth metal rod that is used to turn writing pens between centers on a lathe. Pen mandrels are usually mounted in a Morse taper adapter, but may also be used in collet chucks. Pen mandrels are available in various styles including single, double and adjustable.

#2MT double pen mandrel

Pen Mill - Also known as a barrel trimmer, a pen mill features a machined cutter head assembly that is mounted to a specifically sized pilot shaft. The mill is used to square the ends of pen blanks 90 degrees to the drilled axis of the blank. The pilot shafts are machined to fit inside the pen tube and guide the cutter head assembly during milling.

Pen mill with
interchangeable barrels

pH - The measure of a substance's acidity or alkalinity as measured on a scale of 1 to 14. Number 7 on the scale indicates a neutral pH.

Phenol Resorcinol Formaldehyde – Resorcinol is a thermosetting polymer produced by a condensation polymerization between formaldehyde (from the oxidation of hydrocarbons in the presence of a catalyst), phenol (from the oxidation of cumene) and resorcinol (from sulfonating benzene with fuming sulfuric acid and fusing the resulting benzenedisulfonic acid with caustic soda). Two-part resorcinol adhesives (liquid resin, powered catalyst) have a long and successful track record for superior bonding in load bearing timber structures, plywood laminating and for building wooden aircraft and boats. In addition, structural bonds can be achieved on many plastics, leather, natural and synthetic rubbers, primed metals, textiles and fiberboards.

Pin Chuck - A woodturning specialty chuck that is manufactured from a solid cylinder of steel, with a machined flat area near the end. A small steel pin is placed in this flat area before mounting a properly drilled blank onto the chuck. When the blank is mounted on the chuck and turned 1/4 turn, the small pin on the chuck is wedged against one side of the machined flat and holds the blank for turning. Pin chucks come in various sizes and are popular with some turners for mounting regular and natural edge bowl blanks, bottle stoppers and similar projects where the drilled mounting hole will not interfere with the final design of the project.

Pink Aluminum Oxide - (2150 Knoop Scale) Aluminum Oxide that has been alloyed with a small amount of Chromium is known as Pink Aluminum Oxide (PAO). PAO grinding wheels offer very good form holding ability and durability and often contain a small amount of Titanium Oxide to increase overall toughness. Average crystal size is medium, with sharp or blocky shaped grains.

Pitch Pocket - A parallel opening in the annual growth rings of a tree that contains pitch.

P-Grade - An abrasive classification for FEPA (Federation of European Producers of Abrasives) graded abrasive products. There are two main FEPA classifications (FEPA F - Bonded) (FEPA P - Coated).

Plasticizer - Chemicals that are added to some adhesives to soften them to prevent the adhesive from becoming too brittle when cured.

Plexitone Finish - An acrylic based wood finish made from scrap Plexiglass that has been dissolved in Acetone. Plexiglass is the common name for a type of acrylic plastic known as Polymethyl Methacrylate.

In addition to being used as a wood finish (it is becoming a popular pen finish), Plexitone can also be used as a homemade stabilizer for soft wood, when thinned to the proper application viscosity.

Plexitone finish
master solution

Polishing Paper - Another type of non-woven abrasive that utilizes Silicon Carbide and Aluminum Oxide abrasives in roll, sheet and disk forms. Sizes range from 1 to 30 microns.

3M polishing papers

Polyvinyl Acetate (Aliphatic Resins) – One-part PVA adhesives typically contain polyvinyl acetate, stabilizers, plasticizers and water. Polyvinyl acetate emulsion is manufactured from vinyl acetate monomer. Polyvinyl acetate is used in white glues and yellow carpenters glues, which are commonly known as aliphatic resins. PVA's cure by the evaporation of water, accompanied by the coalescence of the particles. PVA's are widely used for gluing joints in woodworking and woodturning, for bookbinding, lamination, in paper packaging and for sealing Styrofoam materials.

Polyester Abrasive Backing – Man-made cloth designed for applications requiring extreme strength. Polyester cloth backing is stronger and more stable than natural cotton. Rayon and Nylon are also used, as well as blended cloths.

"X" and "Y" weight Polyester cloth – Offers high strength and low stretch characteristics, used for extreme applications. Some X and Y weight cloths feature Poly-Cotton blends.

"YY" and "H" – Strongest cloth backing material used with extreme durability. Typically used for heavy stock removal using course abrasives.

Polyethylene Wax - Polyethylene Wax is a synthetic wax made from selective high, or low-pressure catalytic polymerisation of ethylene feedstocks, which produces waxes with various melt points, hardness and densities. (Ethylene is produced from natural gas, or by cracking petroleum naphtha). High-density polyethylene waxes melt between 85 and 141 degrees Centigrade.

Low-density polyethylene waxes melt between 30 and 141 degrees Centigrade. Polyethylene wax penetration test results vary depending on the type of wax, between 7 and 12 dmm at 25 degrees Centigrade. Polyethylene waxes increase abrasion resistance and help to provide a non-sticky wax surface.

Polymerized Oils - Polymerized oils have been heated in an inert (oxygen-free) atmosphere enough to cause thermal polymerization to occur, but not enough to cause gelation. The resultant oil can be very viscous and is best applied in very thin layers. Two types of commonly available polymerized oil finishes are linseed and tung. These specially processed oils provide faster drying and harder cured films with a more durable glossy luster. Polymerized oil finishes are more expensive than standard oil finishes. In a production environment, polymerized oil finishes allow a significantly faster build, thus saving precious time and labor.

Polyurethane Adhesives – One-part adhesives consist of isocyanate containing pre-polymers, dissolved in a solvent carrier. Reaction with moisture occurs as the solvent evaporates. Unless the curing takes place inside of pressure devices, bubbles may form during curing. One-part polyurethanes are used extensively in woodworking and in woodturning for bonding wood, wood to metal and are also used for gluing metals, ceramics, stone, glass and most plastics.

Two-part polyurethanes contain a polyol resin and an isocyanate hardener that are mixed by the user prior to application. Pot life varies from a few minutes to a few hours. Two-part polyurethanes are used for larger surface adhesion bonds in automotive, marine and container construction. Polyurethane adhesives are also available in the form of reactive hot-melts. After application, these polyurethanes crosslink with moisture to form a heat, moisture and impact resistant adhesive.

Post-Cure - Adhesive post cure occurs when additional curing of the adhesive occurs in the assembly, after pressing of the assembly has been completed.

Pot Life - The amount of time that an adhesive remains usable after any accelerators, or catalysts have been added. Exposure to any ambient curing conditions (temperature, humidity etc.) can also influence the useful pot life. Also known as the "Pot Time."

Powdered Glass – (~ 5.0 Mohs) Although still available in abrasive sheet form, powdered glass is rarely used today except for hand finishing, or for cleaning ceramics. Glass papers are pale yellow in colour.

Power Sanding - Using various power tools such as electric, or pneumatic drills to sand a project, in combination with foam sanding mandrels and hook and loop backed, or sticky backed abrasives.

Power sanding is significantly faster than hand sanding and is the preferred way to sand many faceplate projects like bowls and platters.

Using a pneumatic drill to
power sand a Mesquite bowl

Pre-Cure - Adhesive pre-cure occurs when an adhesive sets in an assembly, before the correct amount of bonding pressure has been applied to the assembly.

Pressure Fed Spray Gun - A spray gun that uses a separate pressurized cup or tank (sometimes called a remote tank), to move the finishing material through the fluid tip and into the cap for atomization. Pressure fed guns are used in production spraying applications, or with finishes that are too viscous to use a siphon gun.

Pressure Range - In compressors, the pressure range is the difference between the minimum (known as the cut-in) and maximum pressures (known as the cut-out) of an air compressor.

Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Backed(Also known as Sticky Backed, or PSA) is a supplemental adhesive coating applied to some paper backed abrasives. PSA abrasives are used with foam or rubber faced sanding mandrels and allow quick changes of grits during the sanding sequence. PSA backed abrasives are not as popular as they once were due to the availability of hook and loop backed abrasives.

Production Work - A very generalized term that relates to multiple copies of similar woodturnings (as opposed to one-off pieces), made by professional woodturners who specialize in one or more different types of work. For example, a production bowl turner may make 100 salad bowls to fill a large order from a buyer, or a pen maker may make 100 pens to fill an order. Also known as Bread and Butter Work.

Profile Scrapers - Scrapers ground with specific shapes or profiles, that are used for various tasks including undercutting bowl rims, cutting specific shapes in the wood surface, or for hollowing boxes.

Kel McNaughton curved
profile scrapers

Pull Cut - A pull cut with an Irish ground bowl gouge is where the mouth of the gouge (rounded cutting tip) trails the cutting surface of the tool, in this case, the long swept back wings.

Using this example, the sharpened edge of the wings actually cut the wood; the mouth of the tool does no cutting. Pull cuts with Irish ground bowl gouges are made with the side wing bevel rubbing during the cut.

Pull cut on the bottom
of a green Mesquite
bowl blank

Pure Form - A loosely defined term that relates to turnings where the turned form is intentionally blacked out with paint or dyes, totally obscuring the grain in the timber. What's left is the pure form or shape of the piece, without any visual distractions. While pieces like this may be completed forms, exercises with pure form are typically done on sample turnings, when the turner is trying to determine a visually acceptable shape for a particular project. When the grain is blacked out in a turning, the viewer can concentrate on the curves, lines and overall shape and proportion of the piece. This is an excellent way to develop new shapes and refine a discerning artistic eye.

Push Cut - A traditional bevel rubbing push cut with an Irish ground bowl gouge is where the mouth of the gouge leads the cut and the wings follow.

Using this example, the mouth of the gouge and a small portion of the wing near the mouth do all of the cutting. The bulk of the sharp wing surface does not cut, unless a very heavy cut is taken.

Push cut on the side
of a green Mesquite
bowl blank

PVA - Polyvinyl Acetate, or traditional wood glue.

Woodturning Glossary 2
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Safety Note: Always follow all manufacturers safety instructions before working with your lathe, or any of the tools or products you may use. If you are unsure about any operation, obtain competent professional instruction before proceeding. Use and wear all necessary safety devices during turning and observe safe woodturning practices to prevent accident or injury.

Steven D. Russell is a professional studio woodturner, teacher and writer. He has written numerous articles for international woodturning magazines, which have been published in more than 78 countries around the world. Steve has demonstrated in numerous cities across the United States. His studio, Eurowood Werks, specializes in bowls, platters and hollow forms with unique visual and tactile treatments.

Steve is also the current and founding President of the Lone Star Woodturners Association, Inc., an AAW member chapter. The LSWA is a 501(c)3 non-profit educational organization dedicated to teaching and demonstrating the art and craft of woodturning.

Steve is also a featured writer for the Guild of Master Craftsman's "Woodturning" magazine, published in London England. Woodturning magazine is the world's leading magazine for woodturners. Look for his articles covering technical topics, or project based articles in an upcoming issue.